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Hi Girls!
I created this page to help you with your English..
I'm gonna put same things here that I've learned on my course, just important things!

So.. let's go.

Simple Present x Present Continuous

• We use the Simple Present to talk about things that happen always, often, generally, normally, every week, etc.. and to talk about things that are unchanging for a long time.

• We use Present Continuous to talk about things that are happening at this moment, now, this week, etc.. and to talk about things that may change.

Simple Past
I was/wasn't (was not)
You were/weren't (were not)
He/She/It was
We/You/They were

Regular verbs,we normally add ED to the base form of the verbs.
work - worked                     clean- cleaned

• But remember these spelling rules:
1. Verbs ending in E: escape - escaped     /     live - lived
2. Verbs ending in a consonant + Y: study - studied  /  cry - cried
3. Verbs ending in a vowel between two consonants (a vowel sandwich): cancel - cancelled     /     stop - stopped

Irregular verbs
They went (go) to the movies last Saturday.
They didn't go to the movies last Saturday.
Did they go to the movies last Saturday?
Yes, they did. / No, they didn't.

Auxiliary Verbs


Do is common for forming questions and making negatives.
Does is used to talk the third person singular.
Did is used for do in the past tense. Do and does is never used for past.

Be= am/is/are/was/were

Be can be used as an auxiliary verb or the main verb in a sentence.
Is tells us that an action is happening now or is going to happen in the future.
Be is also used to make passives.
Are is used for they and we.
Was is used for the past tense of am and is.
Were is used for the past tense of you, we and they.

Have = has/had

Have is used to make the present perfect tense (it is always followed by the past participle).
Has is used for the third person singular.
Had is used for past tense especially the past perfect tense. It describes an action that began in he past and continues into the present or that occurred in the recent past.

Answering Questions

Auxiliary verbs are useful in giving short answers to questions.
Basically, your answer can end with the auxiliary verb.

The following examples are natural and completely acceptable ways to answer questions:
Do you like reading? - Yes, I do (like reading)
Do you have a sister: - No, I don't (have a sister)

Some x Any

Any is common in questions: Do you have any soda?

Some is used in questions that are offers ou requests: Can I have some coffe? / Would you like some coffee?

Will x Going to

We use BE GOING TO for actions that will happen very soon
We use WILL for plans and it is more formal.

Used to/Be used to/Be supposed to/Get used to

Used to - Is to say what you regulary did in the past and don't do it anymore.
Be used to + ING - Is to say what is/was commom for you doing it 
Be supposed to - Something that is/was expected
Get used to - Is the action untill "be used to"

Modals for necexxity x Suggestion

Have to/Must/Need to/ 'd (should) better/ should/ ought to

Modals for requests x Permission

Can/ Could/ Will/ Would/ May

Comparatives x Superlatives

C 1. Adj of one syllable
Old - older     short - shorter     nice - nicer

2. Adj ending in a vowel sandwich
Big - bigger     hot - hotter

3. Adj of two syllables ending in Y
Easy - easier     happy - happier

4. Adj of two or more syllables
Beautiful - more beautiful     modern - more modern

S 1. Adj of one syllable
Old - the oldest     short - the shortest

2. Adj ending in a vowel sandwich
Big - the biggest     hot - the hottest

3. Adj of two syllable ending in Y
Easy - the easiest     happy - the happiest

4. Adj of two or more syllable
Beautiful - the most beautiful     modern - the most modern

Would rather x Prefer

Would you rather eat sushi or pasta?
I'd rather eat sushi

Prefer always followed by ING
Do you prefer (eating) sushi or pasta?
- I prefer (eating) sushi

Past Continuos

When we talk abt some action that was in progress at a specific time in the past.
Ex: Eric was kissing Jenny at 9 last night

We normally use the Past Continuous with the Simple Past to describe two simultaneous actions in past.
Ex: Eric was kissing Jenny when I called.

While/When/As soos as

While is for an action in progress
Ex: While I was watching Tv the phone rang.

When is for a completed action
Ex: When the phone rang I was watching TV

As soon as is for a completed action that happened then
Ex: As soon as the phone rang I turned off the TV

Present Perfect 

Structure - Subject + Have/Has + Participle

We use 

• for actions that started in the past and continue to the present.
Ex: Richard HAS WORKED ther SINCE 1998.

• for actions that we have done in our lives when we don't give exact dates
Ex: Richard HAS BEEN to Paris.

• for actions that happened in an infinished period of time
Ex: They HAVE WORKED a lot this week.

• for actions that happened in the past and have some effect in the present
Ex: I HAVE LOST my keys (I can't open the door now)

• for very recent events when we don't give exact time

Already - at some time before now
Ever - Anytime in your life
Just - Very recently
Never - NOT until now
Yet - Until
Still - To emphasize that we've waited a long time.

Reported Speech (orders,requests,advice)

The teacher says                                              The student reports

Sit down.                                                         She told me to sit down.
Don't close the door.                                          She told me not to close the door.

Please open the window.                                     She asked me to open the door.
Please don't smoke here.                                     She asked me not to smoke here.

You should turn off your cell phone.                      She advised me to turn off my cell phone.
You'd better not be late.                                     She advised me not to be late.

Reported Speech (statements)

Direct Statment                                        Reported Statement

                                                             He said (that)
                                                             He told me (that)

I am really sorry.                                      He was really sorry.
am not cheating on you.                         He was not cheating on you.
don't normally kiss other girls.                   He didn't normally kiss other girls.
kissed Sarah.                                        He had kissed Sarah.
have made a mistake.                            He had made a mistake. 
will never cheat on you again.                  He would never cheat on you again. 
may leave the school.                             He might  leave the school. 

If the time has changed when you report something, make these changes:

Yesterday                   the day before
Tomorrow                   the day after
Today                        that day
Now                           then
This week                   that week
Next month                 the following month
Last year                    the year before
In two hours                two hours later
Five minutes ago          five minutes before

Relative Pronouns

We use WHO or THAT to refer to a person:
Ex: I love that boy.
Which boy?
I like the boy who/that is wearing a blue jacket.

We use WHICH or THAT for things or animals:
Ex: I love the book which/that is on the coffee table.

We use WHOSE when something belongs to a person:
Ex: She is the woman whose dog bit me.

We use WHERE to refer to a place when something happened there:
Ex: This is the house where I studied.

Passive Voice

We can use the passive if we don't know who does something or it isn't important who does it.

Simple Present
People give presents.                                    Presents are given.
People speak Spanish in many countries.          Spanish is spoken in many countries.

Simple Past
Somebody broke the chair.                            The chair was broken.
Cabral discovered Brazil in 1500.                     Brazil was discovered in 1500.

Simple Future
Companies will sell many computers.                Many computers will be sold.
People will make lots of cars.                          Lots of cars will be made.

Present Perfect
People have spent a lot of money.                  A lot of money has been spent.
Somebody has broken the windows.                The windows have been broken.

When you use the passive and you want to say who does the action, use by + person.

Ex: The mail is brought by the mail man every morning.
Hamlet was written by Shakespeare.
The factory has been bought by a big investment company.

Present Perfect Continuous

Structure - Subject + Have/Has + been + main verb.
                                                        BASE + ING

We use the present perfect continuous to talk about an action that started in the past and is still continuing in the present.

We often use "How long..?"  to make questions.

Ex: How long have you been standing in the line?
 Ex: I have been waiting for the bus for 15 minutes.

Make x Do 

We normally use make when we talk about making something new (producing).

Ex: - cooking or preparing food: make a cake, make coffee, make a sandwich, make dinner;
- mistakes/noise/mess/progress/plans: make a mistake, make noise, make a mess, make progress, make plans;
- for certain activities: make a phone call, make a movie, make a TV show;

We use make someone + adjective when someone/something causes a feeling in another person:The child made me angry./My boyfriend makes me happy.

We also use make someone + verb (when someone/something causes someone to do something).: Thata movie made me cry./ The teacher made me think about my actions.

We normally use do when we talk about doing a piece of work or doing a job (process).

Ex: - housework and personal activities: do the groceries, do your hair, do the laundry;
- activities: do a crossword, do a puzzle;
- work: do a job, do some work, do your best;
- education: do the homework, do research, do an exercise;
- do someone favor (=to do something for someone)

Past Perfect

Structure - Had + participle + complement

When two events happened in the past at different times, use the Past Perfect for the first (earliest) event and the Simple Past for the second (most recent) event.

Past Event                                     Past Perfect Event
When I arrived,                               my mother had already cooked dinner;
(First my mother cooked dinner, then I arrived.)

• Before, after and by the time show the order of events.
• You can also use the Past Perfect with before and after, but it is not necessary.
• You MUST use the Past Perfect in sentences with by the time.

To have/To get something done

Structure - Have/Get + noun + past participle

We use have/get when something is done for us by another person.

                  have/get                   noun               participle
They           are having/getting         their house        repaired.  (Present Continuous)
She             had/got                      her hair             cut.         (Simple Past)
We             have had/gotten           our nais            done.      (Present Perfect)
I'm             going to have/get         a new shower     installed.   (Future)
Alex            must have/get             his computer      fixed.        (Simple Present)

Bring x Take

We use bring when we transport something to a place where the speaker or the listener is:

Ex: I would bring you the money in cash if you needed.
My wife will bring me a pizza tonight.

We use take  when we transport something away from the place where the speaker or the listener is:

Ex: Please take these letters to the post office.
Thet taxi took Alex to the office.


We use so after a positive statement.

I'm hungry. = So am I.                                   (=I'm hungry too).
I'm a teacher. = So is he.                               (=He is a teacher too).
I love pizza. = So do I.                                  (=I love pizza too).
I study English. = So does Maria.                     (=She studies English too).

You can also respond using too (after the verb) or simply "Me too".

We use neither after a negative statement.

I'm not hungry. = Neither am I                        (=I'm not hungry either).
I'm not a teacher. = Neither is he                    (= He is not a teacher either).
I don't like pizza. = Neither do I                      (=I don't like pizza either).
I don't study English. = Neither does she          (=She doesn't study English either).


Zero Conditional 
We use If + Simple Present, Simple Present when we talk about things that are generally true.

Ex: If I stay out in the sun too long,                            I get sunburnt.
            Condition                                                                Consequence

If I drink coffee at night,                                           I can't sleep.
           Condition                                                                  Consequence

1st Conditional
 We us If + Simple Present, Simple Future when we talk about a possible situation in the future.

Ex: If I travel to Paris,                                              I will visit the Eiffel Tower.
            Condition                                                                   Consequence.

You will get better grades,                                        If you study more for the tests.
           Consequence                                                            Condition

We can change the order of the sentence though we can't change their structure

 We can also use If + Simple Present, Imperative.

Ex: If you like me, give me a kiss.
     If you go to Switzerland, please bring me some chocolate.

Note: We can't use a future verb after If.

Ex: If we will work more.. (wrong)

2nd Conditional
 We use If + Simple Past, Would + Verb when we talk about a hypothetical (=imaginary) situation in the present or future.

Ex: If I won the lottery,                                           I would buy a mansion.
          Condition                                                                    Consequence

      If I had a car,                                                   I wouldn't take public transportation.
          Condition                                                                     Consequence

 We can also use could/might in second conditional sentences.

Ex: If I had a car,                                                  I could drive to work.
         Condition                                                                       Consequence

      If we stopped studying English,                          We might forget many things.
         Condition                                                                       Consequence

If I/He/She/It were.. Is the correct form in second conditional sentences.

Ex: If he were the President,                                  He would change the country.
          Condition                                                                     Consequence

Though in informal English, people often use was: If he was the President..

Use If I were you, to give advice.

Ex: If I were you,                                                  I would stop smoking.
         Condition                                                                      Consequence

3rd Conditional

 We use If + Past Perfect, would have + past participle when we talk about something in the past that cannot be changed now.

Ex: If I had studied more,                                     I would have passed the test.
         Condition                                                                     Consequence

     If I had relaxed more,                                     I wouldn't have had a heart attack.
         Condition                                                                      Consequence

Note: Sometimes, we talk about something that happened in the past but has a result in the present.   

She married Donald Trump. Now she is a rich woman.

Then we use a mixture of 3rd and 2nd conditional 

Ex: If she hadn't married Donald Trump,                She wouldn't be rich now.
          Condition                                                                      Consequence


We use wish + Simple Past when we wish for something in the present, imagining an unreal situation.

Ex: I wish I had a better car.
     We wish we could swim well.

We use wish + Past Perfect when we wish we had or had not done somehing.

Ex: I wish I hod noticed the problem.
     We wish we had done something to help.

Was / Were going to

We use was / were going to + verb to talk about something we intended to do in the past, but didn't because something else happened.

Ex: He was going to call the photographer, but he forgot.
     They were going to buy a new car, but the didn't have enough money.

Phrasal Verbs

1. When there is NO object:
     The car broke down.
     I woke up early.
     They got up.

2. When we cay say either:
    She put on her dress. (verb + preposition + noun)
    She put her dress on. (verb + noun + preposition)

Note: If we use a pronoun, we must use verb + pronoun + preposition.
     She put it on.

3. When the object must come after the preposition:
    I'm looking for the perfect pair of shoes.
    She got off the bus in Brooklyn.
    The nanny is looking after the baby.

4. When there's a verb + a participle + a preposition:
    Nancy is looking forward to Mary's wedding.
    I can't put up with this dress anymore.

Future Perfect

We use future perfect to express the idea that something will happen before another action in the future. It can also show that something will happen before a specific time  in the future.

Ex: By next November, Jenny will have gone back to U.S.
     Mary won't have had her baby before Jenny comes back.

Future Continuous

We use the future continuous to talk about an action that will be happening at a specific time in the future.

Ex: Jenny will be flying to Europe at 9 o'clock.
     Mary will be sleeping when Alex leaves for work.

Past Modals - Modal + Present Perfect form of a verb

Use this pattern to describe something that probably happened:
The teacher must have left . Her books are not here.

Use this pattern to describe something that possibily happened:
She may have missed the bus. That's why she's late.
He might have forgotten my birthday. He hasn't called me yet. 

Use this pattern to describe something that you didn't do but wish you had:
I should have gone to the party. They said it was great.
You should have studied for that test. Now you've failled.

Use this pattern to describe something that was possible but didn't happen:
She could have married the richiest man in this town.

2 comentários:

  1. Acabei de imprimir hehehe, vou carregar comigo pra todo lugar ...

    vlw vlw bjs

    1. Já marca onde vc parou q essa semana tem mais AUSHSUSHAU *-*